What is gravity?
Because of gravity, if you drop something, it falls down, instead of up. Well, everybody knows that! But, what does this really mean? what is gravity? Gravity has played a big part in making the universe the way it is. Gravity is what make pieces of matter clump together into planets, moons, and stars. Gravity is what makes the planets orbit like the stars--like Earth orbits our star, the Sun. Gravity is what makes the stars clump together in a huge, swirling galaxies.
A great scientist, Albert Einstein, who lived in the 20th century , had a new idea about gravity. He thought that gravity is what happens when space itself is curved or warped around a mass, such as a star or a planet. Thus, a star or planet would cause kind of a dip in space so that any other object that came too near would tend to fall into the dig
Quite a number of experiment show that Einstein was right about this idea and a lot.
For example, if gravity is a force that causes all matter to be attracted to all other matter, why are atoms mostly empty space inside? (There is really hardly any actual matter in an atom!) How are the forces that hold atoms together different from gravity? Is it possible that all the forces we see at work in nature are really different sides of the same basic or structure?
Describe the position, motion and components of our Solar System
position of our Solar System
Remembering the order of the planet can be a tricky task. With eight celestial bodies, and all the names taken from classical nomenclature, getting them mixed up is a common mistake. First the quick facts: Our Solar System has eight "official" planets which orbit the Sun. Here are the planets listed in order of their distance from the Sun:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. An easy mnemonic for remembering the order is "My Very Educated Mother Just Serves Us Noodles" XD
if you add in the dwarf planets, Ceres is located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, While the remaining dwarf planets are in the outer Solar System and in order from the Sun are Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris. There is, as yet, a bit of indecision about the Trans-Neptunian Objects known as Orcus, Quaoar, 2007 010, and Sedna and their inclusion in the dwarf planet category.
A Mnemonic for this list would be "My Very Educated Mother Could Just Serve Us Noodles, Pie, Ham, Muffins, and Eggs" (and Steak, if Sedna is included.)
Motions of our Solar System
For many Years, people believed that the Earth was the unmoving center of the universe and that the planets, Sun, moon, and the stars moved on spheres around the Earth. Astronomers such as Copernicus and Galileo suggested that a Sun centered the Solar System offered a better way to understand the motions of these objects in the sky. But people weren't ready to accept that the Earth wasn't the center of the universe.
Johannes Kepler studied the planets and the work of his teacher, Tycho Brahe, and proved that this theory could explain the motions of the planets. His research revolutionized astronomy.
From these observations, Kepler formulated three laws of planetary orbits which describe how the planets move on their orbits around the Sun. By studying the observations, Kepler derived these laws, but he didn't understand why planets are forced to movie in this way. The concept of gravity wasn't fully understood until Isaac Newton, who could then show that Kepler's laws are simply a consequence of the gravitational attraction between the Sun and the planets.
The Components of our Solar System
The largest, most massive, and most prominent element of the Solar System is, of course, the Sun. The Sun makes up 99.8% of the mass of the Solar System. It is literally the point around which the entire Solar System turns. The Sun is virtually at the center of the Solar System; although gravity tugs by the planets may move center of the System slightly away from the center of the Sun, it always resides deep within the Sun's core.
The next largest objects in the Solar System are the planets. There are generally considered to be eight planets in the Solar System. They can be into two types: (1) the gas giant planets,which include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and (2) the terrestria planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. All eight planets orbit the Sun in elliptical, roughly circular orbits, in approximately the same plane. However, no planet orbits in exactly a circular orbit or exactly in the plane of the Sun's rotation. The orbit of Jupiter is the closest to the plane and circularity; the orbit of Pluto (a dwarf planet) deviates the most from both the plane and from circularity.
After the eight major planets are the minor planets, asteroids and comets. Asteroids and comets are smaller objects than planets, but also orbit the Sun. distinguished by their content: asteroids are primarily made up of ices and volatile compounds.
Minor Planets may be found anywhere in the Solar System, in orbits varying from circular to highly elliptical. Most, however, are found in three belts. The main asteroid belt is found between the planets Mars and Jupiter. As the implies, it is made almost entirely of asteroids. The Kuiper belt is found outside the orbit of Neptune, and encompasses the area from 30 to 100 astronomical units from the Sun. The Kuiper belt contain mainly comets, including very large comet-like objects called cubewanos or plutinos. Some astronomers also consider Pluto to be part of the Kuiper belt. The Oort Cloud is another belt of comets, and is believed to extend out to approximately one light-year from the Sun. its existence is deduced from the frequent visitation of long-period comets, comets with extremely elliptical or even hyperbolic orbits.
Interesting facts on space
1. There are thousands of other planets out there.
We have eight planets in our Solar System. However, outside of our Solar System there are thousands of other planets. The extra-solar planets or exo-planets are in orbit around another star. So far we have almost 1800 confirmed new worlds, with another 3000 awaiting confirmation. Astronomers are looking to a star's goldilocks zone for planets that may be habitable, just like the Earth. The majority of planets discovered so far are hot gas giant planets.
2. In space the skin on your feet peels off!
This is a pretty gross fact but in the micro-gravity environment, astronauts are not using their feet to walk. Therefore the skin on their feet starts to soften and flakes off. Those socks then need to be taken off very gently. if not those dead skin cells will float around in the weightless environment.
3. On Venus a day is longer than a year.
This is tricky one to get your head around but a year on Venus (that is the length of time it takes to complete one whole orbit around the Sun) is 224.7 earth days. However it takes 243 earth days to rotate on its axis just once.
4. One million Earths can fit inside the Sun
Ancient astronomers once believed Earth was at the centre of the Universe but now we know that the Sun is at the centre of our Solar System and our planet orbit the Sun. The Sun makes up 99.8% of the entire mass of the whole Solar System. One million Earths would be needed to be the same size as the Sun.
The overall scale, structure and age of our universe.
The Earth is huge, but it is tiny compared to the Sun which is super huge). Bur the Sun is tiny compared to the Solar System which is tiny compared to the distance to the next star. Oh, did we mention that there are over 100 billion stars in our galaxy (which is about 100,000 light years in diameter) Which is one of the hundreds of billion of galaxies in just the observable universe (which might be infinite for all we know). Don't feel small. We find it liberating. Your everyday human stresses are nothing compared to the enormity that we are a part of. Enjoy the fact that we get to be part of this vastness!
The large-scale structure of the Universe is made up of voids and filaments, that can be broken down into super-clusters, clusters, galaxy groups, and subsequently into galaxies. At a relatively smaller scale, we know that galaxies are made up of stars and their constituents, our own Solar System being one of them.
By understanding the hierarchical structure of things, we are able to gain a clearer visualization of the roles each individual component plays and how they fit into the larger picture. For example, if we go down to the world of the very small, we know that molecules can be chopped down into atoms; atoms into protons, electrons, and neutrons; then the protons and neutrons into quarks and so on.
But what about the very large? what is the large-scale structure of the universe what exactly are super-clusters and filaments and voids? Let's start by looking at galaxy groupings and move on to even larger structures.
Although there are some galaxies that are found to stray away by their lonesome, most of them are actually bundled into groupd and clusters. Groups are smaller, usually made up of less than 50 galaxies and can have diameters up to 6 million light-years. in fact, the group in which our Milky Way is a member of is made up of only a little over 40 galaxies.
Generally speaking, clusters are bunches of 50 to 1.000 galaxies that can have diameters of up 2-10 megaparsecs. One very peculiar property of clusters is that the velocities of their galaxies are supposed to be too high for gravity alone to keep them bunched together ...and yet they are.
THE AGE OF LE UNIVERSE
Age may only be a number, but when it comes to the age of the universe, it's a pretty important one. According to research, the universe is approximately 13.8 billion years old. How did scientists determine how many candles to put on the universe's birthday cake? They determine the age of the universe using two different methods: by studying the oldest objects within the universe and measuring how fast it is expanding
The universe cannot be younger than the objects contained inside of it. By determining the ages of the oldest stars, scientists are able to put a limit on the age.
The life cycle of a star is based on its mass. More massive stars burn faster than their lower-mass siblings. A star 10 times as massive as the sun will burn through its fuel supply in 20 million years. The mass also affects the brightness, or luminosity, of a star; more massive stars are brighter. [Realted: The Brightest Stars: Luminosity & Magnitude]
Comparing Earth's environment vs Saturn's environment
Mass: 5,972,190,000,000,000 billion kg
Equatorial Diameter: 12,756 km
Polar Diameter: 12,714 km
Equatorial Circumference: 40,030 km
Known Moons: 1
Notable Moons: The Moon
Orbit Distance: 149,598,262 km (1 AU)
Orbit Period: 365.26 Earth days
Surface Temperature: -88 to 58°C
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species. Climate, weather, and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity.
In contrast to the natural environment is the built environment. In such areas where man has fundamentally transformed landscapes such as urban settings and agricultural land conversion, the natural environment is greatly modified and diminished, with a much more simplified human environment largely replacing it. Even events which seem less extreme such as hydroelectric dam construction, or photovoltaic system construction in the desert, the natural environment is substantially altered.
It is difficult to find absolutely natural environments, and it is common that the naturalness varies in a continuum, from ideally 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other. More precisely, we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, and see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform. If, for instance, we take an agricultural field, and consider the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil, we will find that whereas the first is quite similar to that of an undisturbed forest soil, the structure is quite different.
Natural environment is often used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the natural environment of giraffes is the savanna.
Mass: 568,319,000,000,000,000 billion kg (95.16 x Earth)
Equatorial Diameter: 120,536 km
Polar Diameter: 108,728 km
Equatorial Circumference: 365,882 km
Known Moons: 62
Notable Moons: Titan, Enceladus, lepetus, Mimas, Tethys, Dirone, & Rhea.
Known Rings: 30+ (7 Groups)
Orbit Distance: 1,426,666,422 km (9.58 AU)
Orbit Period: 10,755.70 Earth days (29.45 Earth years)
Surface Temperature: -139 °C
First Record: 8th century BC
Recorded By: Assyrians
Saturn's atmospheric environment is one of strong gravity, high pressure, strong winds, from 225 miles per hour to 1000 miles per hour, and cold temperatures of -270 degrees to +80 degrees. With winds like these, it is hard to have peace and quiet.The region where it is 80 degrees sounds pretty friendly, but where the temperature is 80 degrees, the pressure is about the same as it would be if you were a couple miles below the sea on Earth!
In the atmosphere there are at least three known cloud decks of ammonia, ammonia hydrosulfide, and water, perhaps made of huge droplets.
There is energy in the environment from lightning, ultraviolet light, and charged particles.
Saturn's interior possesses an environment of pressures as great as three million times the sea-level pressure on earth, and temperatures as high as 10,000 degrees.